How to Install Debian 9 (Stretch) with Manual Partitioning

The installation of the Debian operating system is generally the same, any version. And tutorials / installation guide Debian has been widely spread on the internet. You can easily get it in an instant through google search engine. Then what is so special this tutorial that I write this?

Hehehe … nothing special. Notes (not tutotial loh yah) I am just explaining how to manually install with partitions. Because most Debian installation tutorials are with auto partitioning. Well, on this note will be practiced how to install Debian 9 (Stretch) with automatic partitioning.

Okay, no need to be long. The example of this case:

You are required to install a server with the following conditions

  1. Create a 10GB partition and associate it to / (root partition)
  2. Make sure the swap partition size is 2xRAM
  3. Create a partition for / home with the maximum size
  4. Also create a partition for / var with a size of 30% of the partition for / home

All right, let’s be executed. When creating this note, I use VirtualBox to install Debian 9. Because if using a real server I can not take a screenshot :-P.

Figure 01: Initial view
Turn on VirtualBox, create and run the Debian VM so it looks like Figure 01 above. There are several options there, I will use the text mode installation, then I take the second option, Install. Press the up or down direction keys to change the selection, then press [Enter]

Figure 02: Select Language
Search and select the language to use in the Installation process, choose Bahasa Indonesia to follow my notes.

Figure 03: Are you sure you choose Indonesian?
Select [Yes] to continue with the selected language. The explanation on the picture is pretty clear, I think.

Figure 04: Select a location
Again, choose Indonesia.

Figure 05: Keyboard layout
For this one, leave the default (English American), do not change, directly press [Enter]. Unless you’re sure the keyboard layout you’re using is not it.

Figure 06: Setting up the network
Well, in this network configuration I chose not to set the network. My NAT is disabled, so will not be able to IP from DHCP server. Select the bottom, then press [Enter].

Figure 07: Setting up the network
Set hostname, hostname is the computer name. It’s free, as you please. In this case I use debian-server as its hostname. Press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 08: Password for root account
Ah, actually already quite clear explanation on the picture. Starting on this Debian 9 (Stretch), super root user account may not be given a password, instead a user account will be created and authorized to root with the “sudo” command. But incidentally, I chose to enter a password here :-P. Press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 09: Password again
Enter the password again.

Figure 10: User name
Type in your full name, or type samsul maarif if you want to use my name :-). Press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 11: Account name
The account name will usually automatically use the first name. Just press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 12: Password for user account
Type the password for the user’s account. This password is mandatory. This is used to log in to the system.

Figure 13: Time zone
Select the time zone corresponding to where you live. Then press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 14: Partition the hard disk
Well, here it is. The essence of this note. Because the installation will be done with manual partitioning. Select Manual, then press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 15: Partition the hard disk
In the picture 15, it looks hardisknya partition is still empty.

If on your hard drive there are many partitions, make sure the data on the hard disk partition is already DIBACKUP alias SHIPPED, delete all existing partitions. How to remove it? Navigate to the hard drive whose partition will be deleted, press [Enter], then select yes to delete it.
If you are not quite sure, please select the <back> button and uninstall.

After the partition is empty like the image 15, proceed to the next process. Select on EMPTY ROOM, then press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 16: Create a new partition
Select Create new partition, then press [Enter] to continue musikji.

Figure 17: partition size
Well again, because the requested 10 GB for /, then make first partition.

Figure 18: Partition type
Select Primary, then press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 19: partition location
Select Start, then press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 20: partition
If successful will appear as Figure 20. Make sure the hook point is /, the file system I currently use is the Ext4 journal file system. Select Done to compile the partition, then press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 21: create a new partition
Next, point to EMPTY ROOM, then press [Enter] to continue creating the partition again.

Figure 22: create a new partition
Select Create new partition, then press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 23: partition for swap
What is asked on the question is the 2xRAM swap partition, while the RAM I use on VirtualBox is 1 GB. So I created a new partition 2 GB size, press [Enter] to continue

Figure 24: New partition type
Select Logical, press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 25: the location of the partition
The explanation in the picture is clear enough, right? Select Start, press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 26: change the file system
Well, since this partition will be used as swap, point to Use as :, press [Enter].

Figure 27: file system options
Drag down, and select swap space, press [Enter] again.

Figure 28: swap done
Drag again down, select Done compile the partition, press [Enter] again.

Figure 29: blank space
Just 2 partitions are created, then point again to ROOM EMPTY, press [Enter] to create a new partition.

Figure 30: create a new partition
Just like before, select Create new partition, press [Enter] again.

Figure 31: partition size
Because the requested is to create the / home and / var partitions. First create partition for / var for easier, enter 30% number, press [Enter] to continue.

This will create a new partition of 30% of the rest of the hard drive.

Figure 32: partition type again
Select logical again, press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 33: new partition location again
Select Start, press [Enter] to continue again.

Figure 34: change the hook point
Point at the point of the hook where it appears / home, press [Enter], the latch point option will appear.

Figure 35: choice of hook point
Select / var to change / home. Partitions for / home are made later. Press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 36: Completed arranging the partition
Once sure enough looks like the picture above, the Hook point section is directed to / var. Select Done to compile the partition, press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

Figure 37: The remaining free space
Navigate back to ROOM, [Enter] again on the keyboard to continue.

Figure 38: Create a new partition
Press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

Figure 39: the size of the new partition
Well, the size of this partition should not be changed, because whatever the rest will be used entirely as partition for / home. Except, if will make partition again other than for which already mentioned here. Directly press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue the next stage.

Figure 40: Logical
Select the Logical partition type, press [Enter] to continue again.

Figure 41: partition / home
After looking like 41 above, this hook point leads to / home. Select Done compile the partition, [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

Figure 42: Complete partitioning
In this step, the results of the created partition are created. As in the picture, there is a file system, size, hook point, etc.

Note:
– Logical partition always starts with number # 5, because maximum primary partition is 4 partition.
– f there means that the partition will be formatted.

Figure 43: Partition Confirmation
Up to this point, before <Yes> is selected, your hard drive remains intact. Have not done anything yet. So, if you cancel the installation process at this stage, your hard drive is still intact.

On the question Write the changes that occur on the hard disk ?, select <Yes>, press [Enter] to confirm the change. Wait a while, your hard drive is being formatted, created some partitions as requested.

Figure 44: Repository of the DVD
When the display appears as in figure 44 above, select <No>.

As is known, Debian is divided into several DVDs, DVD 1 is an installer and contains some packages, DVD 2 & 3 contains only packages. Packages in this case may be referred to as repositories. The repository is an application pack storehouse. When installing an application on Debian through a management package, the application package is retrieved from the repository.

Selecting <Yes> will require you to enter DVDs 2 & 3, will certainly extend the installation process.

Figure 45: use mirror?
Select <No> too, press [Enter] to confirm.

Repositories, either online or via DVD can be set after the installation process.

Figure 46: popularity contest
As written on the picture, the survey results will be used to determine which packages should be included on the first Debian CD. Select <Yes>, if you intend to participate, select <No> if you do not participate. Press [Enter] to confirm.

Figure 47: Choice of package
Because it will install Debian as a server, only some packages will be installed. Use the [Space] (space) button on the keyboard to enable and disable the package options to install.

Figure 48: SSH Server
Just select SSH Server and the only standard System tool on this practice. Press [Enter] to continue. Wait some time until the installation is complete, until the next display appears.

Figure 49: Install the boot loader
Well, pretty clear explanation on the picture, is not it? Select <Yes>, then press [Enter].

Figure 50: Select the hard disk
Select the device (hard disk) to install the boot loader. In this case the only hard disk is / dev / sda. If there are other hard disks, make sure to select the correct one, which is the hard disk associated with / earlier. Select / dev / sda in this case, then press [Enter].

Figure 51: The installation is complete
Up to this point the installation has been completed. Select <Continue> to end the installation and the computer will be restarted. For the next will go into the newly installed system.

Make sure CD / DVD installation media is removed. So when the computer re-ignited not go back to the installation process.

Figure 52: GRUB boot loader
Display GRUB Boot loader when logged in to the newly installed Debian system.

Figure 53: login view
This is a login view, like an entrance to a newly created home. Enter a username and password to log in to the system.

NOTE! The password in Linux will not be visible, so just type the password, then press [Enter]

Figure 54: successful login
If the username and password you type are correct, you will log in to the system. Marked with username @ namahost: ~ $, in this case my username is samsul and hostname is debian-server.

Oops, you forgot the password you typed during installation? Yes, please re-install your system. Make sure not forget again, itung-itung learn to understand the installation process. Or learn how to reset passwords to log into a Linux system, especially Debian

How To Install And Configure NTP Server In Debian

Okay, before I start install tutorial and ntp server configuration, how would I explain in advance the notion of ntp server? and also the usability of ntp server?

NTP stands for Network Time Protocol, a protocol for synchronizing a clock system on a computer against an accurate source, via an intranet or internet network. While the NTP Server is a server that is useful to synchronize the time to an accurate time source, and transmit the time information packet to the client computer requesting

This NTP Server is very useful if you manage a very tight network in time affairs. so the time available on each client will be exactly the same as our server

To make this NTP server is not so difficult. and this time I will give the tutorial. I am here using debian 7. if you have debian other than version 7, eg debian 8 or debian 6 do not worry, because basically the same first you have to install it first

# apt-get install ntp ntpdate

then the ntp server configuration is

#nano /etc/ntp.conf

Look for writing server0.debian.pool.ntp.org iburst
add fence (#) from server 0 to 3 and write server 127.127.1.0 under server 3

next search again posts restrict 192.168.123.0 mask 255.255.255.0 notrust and remove the hash mark (#) at the beginning of the post. change to restrict 192.168.32 (as per your ip) .0 mask 255.255.255.0 nomodify notrap

then save the configuration by pressing ctrl + x then y then enter

restart the ntp server with the # service ntp restart command
then check the ntp server is running well or not with the command #ntpq -p. if it is good on the jitter will be worth 0.001 or 0.000. if you have not researched the file configuration before there maybe something wrong.

Then you try by first test through the debian server directly with the command #ntpdate -u 127.0.0.1 will appear more or less like omdimas the following

then try to open the time settings on your windows client. go to date and time, select internet time, change settings … will appear new window

then check on “Syncronize with an …” enter ip server then Update now.

if it already says “The clock was successfully syncronized with …” it means you managed to sync the time to your ntp server

#note: if there is still any error writing, try repeating press Update now, it usually takes several times
good luck

How to install debian 8

Debian is a free operating system (from freedom meaning freedom) to your computer. The operating system is a collection of basic programs and utilities that your computer needs to work.

Debian 8.0 was released April 25, 2015. The release includes many major changes, described in press releases and Release Notes.

To get and install Debian, see the installation information page
and Installation Guide. To upgrade from an older Debian release, see the instructions in Release Notes on its official website at http://debian.org

Steps to install debian 8:

1. Setting the BIOS of your computer like time and others including boot priority to boot over DVD / CD or you can make booting via flash or other media you can use the initial process after booting via debian DVD as shown below
you can select “install” by pressing enter

2. After press enter will appear option for the language you will use I suggest to use bahasa english because this language is more universal
you can select “english – english” by pressing enter

3.Then you will be asked to choose the location where you are located please select “other> asia> indonesia
then select “asia” hit enter
then select “indonesia” press enter
4. Next you will be prompted to specify locales please select “United States – en_US.UTF-8”
5.Selanjutnya you will be prompted to choose the type or type of keyboard you use please select “American English” if you use qwerty keyboard

8.If your network is not connected or not using DHCP network you can configure your LAN card first with ip
9. After that you can configure your ip first by selecting “Configure network manully” press enter
10.Isikan your IP address
11. Next will exit auto gateway from your ip then hit enter

12. Next you will be asked to enter ip dns you can input the same ip with ip gateway
13. Then you are asked to enter the hostname
14. Next you are asked to enter a domain name
15. Next you will be asked to enter a password for user “ROOT”

16.Masukan once again your root password and then press enter

17. Then you are prompted to enter the full name of the new user you want to create and then enter
18.Then you are asked to enter usernname for new user then enter
19.New User Password
20.Make another password for the new user
21. Then you will be asked to enter time zone or time zones in Indonesia please select Western for WIB

22.Now you are in the process of selecting the second partition
23. Press enter
24.Select “All files in one partition” and press enter
25. Then select “Finish partitioning and write changes to disk” and press enter

26. Then select “yes” to “write the changes to disks” press enter

27.Then “scan another CD or DVD ….” select enter no enter
28.Then will appear “use a network mirror” select no then enter

29. Appear “participate in the package usage survey?” like the picture below please select “yes” then press enter

30. next you are asked to choose what software you want to install, to select software please you press space to mark bingtang then press enter if you have finished select

31.Then appear as shown below is “install the GRUB …” please select “yes” press enter
32.Then you will be asked to select where master boot loader will be installed select “/ dev / sda” or your hard drive press enter

33. After the installation is complete it will appear as shown below and select “continue” press enter and finish

Thank you ^^

How to Install Debian 9 (Stretch) with Manual Partitioning

Debian operating system installation is generally the same, any version. And tutorials / installation guide Debian has been widely spread on the internet. You can easily get it in an instant through google search engine. Then what is so special this tutorial that I write this?

Hehehe … nothing special. Notes (not tutotial loh yah) I am just explaining how to manually install with partitions. Because most Debian installation tutorials are with auto partitioning. Well, on this note will be practiced how to install Debian 9 (Stretch) with automatic partitioning.

Okay, no need to be long. The example of this case:

You are required to install a server with the following conditions:
1. Create a 10GB partition and associate it to / (root partition)
2. Make sure the swap partition size is 2xRAM
3. Create a partition for / home with the maximum size
4. Also create a partition for / var with a size of 30% of the partition for / home

All right, let’s be executed. When creating this note, I use VirtualBox to install Debian 9. Because if using a real server I can not take a screenshot :-P.

Turn on VirtualBox, create and run the Debian VM so it looks like Figure 01 above. There are several options there, I will use the text mode installation, then I take the second option, Install. Press the up or down direction keys to change the selection, then press [Enter]

Search and select the language to use in the Installation process, choose Bahasa Indonesia to follow my notes.

Select [Yes] to continue with the selected language. The explanation on the picture is pretty clear, I think.

Again, choose Indonesia.

For this one, leave the default (English American), do not change, directly press [Enter]. Unless you’re sure the keyboard layout you’re using is not it.

Well, in this network configuration I chose not to set the network. My NAT is disabled, so will not be able to IP from DHCP server. Select the bottom, then press [Enter].

Set hostname, hostname is the computer name. It’s free, as you please. In this case I use debian-server as its hostname. Press [Enter] to continue.

Ah, actually already quite clear explanation on the picture. Starting on this Debian 9 (Stretch), super root user account may not be given a password, instead a user account will be created and authorized to root with the “sudo” command. But incidentally, I chose to enter a password here :-P. Press [Enter] to continue.

Enter the password again.

Type in your full name, or type samsul maarif if you want to use my name :-). Press [Enter] to continue.

The account name will usually automatically use the first name. Just press [Enter] to continue.

Type the password for the user’s account. This password is mandatory. This is used to log in to the system.

Select the time zone corresponding to where you live. Then press [Enter] to continue.

Well, here it is. The essence of this note. Because the installation will be done with manual partitioning. Select Manual, then press [Enter] to continue.

If on your hard drive there are many partitions, make sure the data on the hard disk partition is already DIBACKUP alias SHIPPED, delete all existing partitions. How to remove it? Navigate to the hard drive whose partition will be deleted, press [Enter], then select yes to delete it.
If you are not quite sure, please select the <back> button and uninstall.

After the partition is empty like the image 15, proceed to the next process. Select on EMPTY ROOM, then press [Enter] to continue.

Select Create new partition, then press [Enter] to continue.

Well again, because the requested 10 GB for /, then make first partition.

Select Primary, then press [Enter] to continue.

Select Start, then press [Enter] to continue.

If successful will appear as Figure 20. Make sure the hook point is /, the file system I currently use is the Ext4 journal file system. Select Done to compile the partition, then press [Enter] to continue.

Next, point to EMPTY ROOM, then press [Enter] to continue creating the partition again.

Select Create new partition, then press [Enter] to continue.

What is asked on the question is the 2xRAM swap partition, while the RAM I use on VirtualBox is 1 GB. So I created a new partition 2 GB size, press [Enter] to continue

Select Logical, press [Enter] to continue.

The explanation in the picture is clear enough, right? Select Start, press [Enter] to continue.

Well, since this partition will be used as swap, point to Use as :, press [Enter].

Drag down, and select swap space, press [Enter] again.

Drag again down, select Done compile the partition, press [Enter] again.

Just 2 partitions are created, then point again to ROOM EMPTY, press [Enter] to create a new partition.

Just like before, select Create new partition, press [Enter] again.

Because the requested is to create the / home and / var partitions. First create partition for / var for easier, enter 30% number, press [Enter] to continue.

This will create a new partition of 30% of the rest of the hard drive.

Select logical again, press [Enter] to continue.

Select Start, press [Enter] to continue again.

Point at the point of the hook where it appears / home, press [Enter], the latch point option will appear.

Select / var to change / home. Partitions for / home are made later. Press [Enter] to continue.

Once sure enough looks like the picture above, the Hook point section is directed to / var. Select Done to compile the partition, press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

Navigate back to ROOM, [Enter] again on the keyboard to continue.

Press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

Well, the size of this partition should not be changed, because whatever the rest will be used entirely as partition for / home. Except, if will make partition again other than for which already mentioned here. Directly press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue the next stage.

Select the Logical partition type, press [Enter] to continue again.

After looking like 41 above, this hook point leads to / home. Select Done compile the partition, [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

In this step, the results of the created partition are created. As in the picture, there is a file system, size, hook point, etc.

Note:
– Logical partition always starts with number # 5, because maximum primary partition is 4 partition.
– f there means that the partition will be formatted.

Up to this point, before <Yes> is selected, your hard drive remains intact. Have not done anything yet. So, if you cancel the installation process at this stage, your hard drive is still intact.

On the question Write the changes that occur on the hard disk ?, select <Yes>, press [Enter] to confirm the change. Wait a while, your hard drive is being formatted, created some partitions as requested.

When the display appears as in figure 44 above, select <No>.

As is known, Debian is divided into several DVDs, DVD 1 is an installer and contains some packages, DVD 2 & 3 contains only packages. Packages in this case may be referred to as repositories. The repository is an application pack storehouse. When installing an application on Debian through a management package, the application package is retrieved from the repository.

Selecting <Yes> will require you to enter DVDs 2 & 3, will certainly extend the installation process.

Select <No> too, press [Enter] to confirm.

Repositories, either online or via DVD can be set after the installation process.

As written on the picture, the survey results will be used to determine which packages should be included on the first Debian CD. Select <Yes>, if you intend to participate, select <No> if you do not participate. Press [Enter] to confirm.Because it will install Debian as a server, only some packages will be installed. Use the [Space] (space) key on the keyboard to enable and disable the package options to install.

Just select SSH Server and the only standard System tool on this practice. Press [Enter] to continue. Wait some time until the installation is complete, until the next display appears.

Well, pretty clear explanation on the picture, is not it? Select <Yes>, then press [Enter].

Select the device (hard disk) to install the boot loader. In this case the only hard disk is / dev / sda. If there are other hard disks, make sure to select the correct one, which is the hard disk associated with / earlier. Select / dev / sda in this case, then press [Enter].

Up to this point the installation has been completed. Select <Continue> to end the installation and the computer will be restarted. For the next will go into the newly installed system.

Make sure CD / DVD installation media is removed. So when the computer re-ignited not go back to the installation process.

Display GRUB Boot loader when logged in to the newly installed Debian system.

This is a login view, like an entrance to a newly created home. Enter a username and password to log in to the system.

NOTE! The password in Linux will not be visible, so just type the password, then press [Enter]

If the username and password you type are correct, you will login to the system. Marked with username @ namahost: ~ $, in this case my username is samsul and hostname is debian-server.

Oops, you forgot the password you typed during installation? Yes, please re-install your system. Make sure not forget again, itung-itung learn to understand the installation process. Or learn how to reset a password to log into a Linux system, especially Debian.

Drag down, and select swap space, press [Enter] again.

Drag again down, select Done compile the partition, press [Enter] again.

Just 2 partitions are created, then point again to ROOM EMPTY, press [Enter] to create a new partition.

Just like before, select Create new partition, press [Enter] again.

Because the requested is to create the / home and / var partitions. First create partition for / var for easier, enter 30% number, press [Enter] to continue.

This will create a new partition of 30% of the rest of the hard drive.

Select logical again, press [Enter] to continue.

Select Start, press [Enter] to continue again.

Point at the point of the hook where it appears / home, press [Enter], the latch point option will appear.

Select / var to change / home. Partitions for / home are made later. Press [Enter] to continue.

Once sure enough looks like the picture above, the Hook point section is directed to / var. Select Done to compile the partition, press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

Navigate back to ROOM, [Enter] again on the keyboard to continue.

Press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

Well, the size of this partition should not be changed, because whatever the rest will be used entirely as partition for / home. Except, if will make partition again other than for which already mentioned here. Directly press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue the next stage.

Select the Logical partition type, press [Enter] to continue again.

After looking like 41 above, this hook point leads to / home. Select Done compile the partition, [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

In this step, the results of the created partition are created. As in the picture, there is a file system, size, hook point, etc.

Note:
– Logical partition always starts with number # 5, because maximum primary partition is 4 partition.
– f there means that the partition will be formatted.

Up to this point, before <Yes> is selected, your hard drive remains intact. Have not done anything yet. So, if you cancel the installation process at this stage, your hard drive is still intact.

On the question Write the changes that occur on the hard disk ?, select <Yes>, press [Enter] to confirm the change. Wait a while, your hard drive is being formatted, created some partitions as requested.

When the display appears as in figure 44 above, select <No>.

As is known, Debian is divided into several DVDs, DVD 1 is an installer and contains some packages, DVD 2 & 3 contains only packages. Packages in this case may be referred to as repositories. The repository is an application pack storehouse. When installing an application on Debian through a management package, the application package is retrieved from the repository.

Selecting <Yes> will require you to enter DVDs 2 & 3, will certainly extend the installation process.

Select <No> too, press [Enter] to confirm.

Repositories, either online or via DVD can be set after the installation process.

As written on the picture, the survey results will be used to determine which packages should be included on the first Debian CD. Select <Yes>, if you intend to participate, select <No> if you do not participate. Press [Enter] to confirm.Because it will install Debian as a server, only some packages will be installed. Use the [Space] (space) key on the keyboard to enable and disable the package options to install.

Just select SSH Server and the only standard System tool on this practice. Press [Enter] to continue. Wait some time until the installation is complete, until the next display appears.

Well, pretty clear explanation on the picture, is not it? Select <Yes>, then press [Enter].

Select the device (hard disk) to install the boot loader. In this case the only hard disk is / dev / sda. If there are other hard disks, make sure to select the correct one, which is the hard disk associated with / earlier. Select / dev / sda in this case, then press [Enter].

Up to this point the installation has been completed. Select <Continue> to end the installation and the computer will be restarted. For the next will go into the newly installed system.

Make sure CD / DVD installation media is removed. So when the computer re-ignited not go back to the installation process.

Display GRUB Boot loader when logged in to the newly installed Debian system.

This is a login view, like an entrance to a newly created home. Enter a username and password to log in to the system.

NOTE! The password in Linux will not be visible, so just type the password, then press [Enter]

If the username and password you type are correct, you will login to the system. Marked with username @ namahost: ~ $, in this case my username is samsul and hostname is debian-server.

Oops, you forgot the password you typed during installation? Yes, please re-install your system. Make sure not forget again, itung-itung learn to understand the installation process. Or learn how to reset a password to log into a Linux system, especially Debian.

Drag down, and select swap space, press [Enter] again.

Drag again down, select Done compile the partition, press [Enter] again.

Just 2 partitions are created, then point again to ROOM EMPTY, press [Enter] to create a new partition.

Just like before, select Create new partition, press [Enter] again.

Because the requested is to create the / home and / var partitions. First create partition for / var for easier, enter 30% number, press [Enter] to continue.

This will create a new partition of 30% of the rest of the hard drive.

Select logical again, press [Enter] to continue.

Select Start, press [Enter] to continue again.

Point at the point of the hook where it appears / home, press [Enter], the latch point option will appear.

Select / var to change / home. Partitions for / home are made later. Press [Enter] to continue.

Once sure enough looks like the picture above, the Hook point section is directed to / var. Select Done to compile the partition, press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

Navigate back to ROOM, [Enter] again on the keyboard to continue.

Press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

Well, the size of this partition should not be changed, because whatever the rest will be used entirely as partition for / home. Except, if will make partition again other than for which already mentioned here. Directly press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue the next stage.

Select the Logical partition type, press [Enter] to continue again.

After looking like 41 above, this hook point leads to / home. Select Done compile the partition, [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

In this step, the results of the created partition are created. As in the picture, there is a file system, size, hook point, etc.

Note:
– Logical partition always starts with number # 5, because maximum primary partition is 4 partition.
– f there means that the partition will be formatted.

Up to this point, before <Yes> is selected, your hard drive remains intact. Have not done anything yet. So, if you cancel the installation process at this stage, your hard drive is still intact.

On the question Write the changes that occur on the hard disk ?, select <Yes>, press [Enter] to confirm the change. Wait a while, your hard drive is being formatted, created some partitions as requested.

When the display appears as in figure 44 above, select <No>.

As is known, Debian is divided into several DVDs, DVD 1 is an installer and contains some packages, DVD 2 & 3 contains only packages. Packages in this case may be referred to as repositories. The repository is an application pack storehouse. When installing an application on Debian through a management package, the application package is retrieved from the repository hargapromosupermarket.

Selecting <Yes> will require you to enter DVDs 2 & 3, will certainly extend the installation process.

Select <No> too, press [Enter] to confirm.

Repositories, either online or via DVD can be set after the installation process.

As written on the picture, the survey results will be used to determine which packages should be included on the first Debian CD. Select <Yes>, if you intend to participate, select <No> if you do not participate. Press [Enter] to confirm.Because it will install Debian as a server, only some packages will be installed. Use the [Space] (space) key on the keyboard to enable and disable the package options to install.

Just select SSH Server and the only standard System tool on this practice. Press [Enter] to continue. Wait some time until the installation is complete, until the next display appears.

Well, pretty clear explanation on the picture, is not it? Select <Yes>, then press [Enter].

Select the device (hard disk) to install the boot loader. In this case the only hard disk is / dev / sda. If there are other hard disks, make sure to select the correct one, which is the hard disk associated with / earlier. Select / dev / sda in this case, then press [Enter].

Up to this point the installation has been completed. Select <Continue> to end the installation and the computer will be restarted. For the next will go into the newly installed system.

Make sure CD / DVD installation media is removed. So when the computer re-ignited not go back to the installation process.

Display GRUB Boot loader when logged in to the newly installed Debian system.

This is a login view, like an entrance to a newly created home. Enter a username and password to log in to the system.

NOTE! The password in Linux will not be visible, so just type the password, then press [Enter]

If the username and password you type are correct, you will login to the system. Marked with username @ namahost: ~ $, in this case my username is samsul and hostname is debian-server.

Tutorial How to Install Linux Debian 7 (Wheezy)

Debian 7 (Wheezy) Linux more I use for server purposes, be it for Unbound DNS Server, Web Server, Proxy Server, R1Soft Backup Server, etc. In addition to free, stable & powerful; the installation process was easy to use ribet :). Here is a tutorial on how to install Linux Debian 7 (Wheezy). You can follow this tutorial for instalation on bare metal server (dedicated machine) or in virtual machine like VMWare, XenServer or VirtualBox.

PREPARATION

The first step is to download Debian 7 (Wheezy) installation. I personally prefer to use the standard iso version. Please download, adjust to your server / pc type, whether 64 bit or 32 bit. If your server / pc supports 64 bit, it is highly recommended to install 64 bit version.

Download Debian 7 Wheezy 32-bit
Download Debian 7 Wheezy 64-bit

For other iso version options, please see and download here.

When you have finished downloading, please burn to CD if you plan to install using CD. Or create a USB installer using Rufus or other USB installer installer app, if you plan to install via Flashdisk. If you plan to install on a virtual machine, you do not need to do anything, skip directly to the installation process.

INSTALLATION

First, set the BIOS to boot first via CD or USB, adjust to the type of installation media you choose. Start server / pc, and will appear as below:

 

Select “Install” to start installing Debian 7 (Wheezy) Linux.

 

Select the language you want to use for this Debian 7 installation. I chose English, if you want to choose Bahasa Indonesia.

 

Next select the state of the location we install Debian 7, this is to facilitate the time setting (hours, days and dates) as well as so that when setting the repository, we can choose the nearest location. Because we are in Indonesia, we will automatically choose Indonesia. Since Indonesia is not in the list, we select “Other”, then choose “Asia”, and select “Indonesia”.

 

For the locale setting, we select “United States”.

 

For keyboard keymap settings, I select “American Keyboard” to make the process faster: D You can select other keymap if you want.

 

Next we enter the process of networking settings. If your network uses DHCP Server, then you can skip directly to the hostname settings below. If you are not using DHCP Server, you are required to manually set the IP address, netmask, gateway & DNS server.

Select “Configure network manually” to start setting up networking on this Debian 7 machine.

 

In the IP Address field, enter the IP address you want to use. For example, here I am using IP address 192.168.0.102.

 

For the Netmask column, enter your network netmask. If you do not know or doubt, please check with your network admin. Here I use netmask 255.255.255.0.

Fill your network gateway.

 

Then enter the DNS Server you want to use. You can use local DNS servers, or external DNS servers such as Google Public DNS & OpenDNS.

 

Hostname is sort of a label, which is used to name the server / pc. Enter the hostname to your liking.

 

If this Debian 7 machine you use for online server, you can enter the domain name to be accessed. But if the server is on the intranet (local network), you can enter any name.

 

Next please enter a password for root (administrator). Use strong passwords & not easy to guess. You can use any combination of letters, numbers, uppercase or small letters, and special characters.

 

Re-enter the password for the root you previously entered.

 

Next is to create a normal user, so that when we work on this machine, not always logged in as root (administrator). Root is only used in certain moments only, such as install software, perform configuration, etc.. By working as a normal user, our Debian 7 machine will be safer from unwanted things. Enter the full name of the user who will use this Debian 7 machine.

 

Then enter the desired username for the new user.

 

And enter the password for this new user.

 

Next select the time zone according to your region. Because I am in Surabaya (Western Indonesia Time / Time), then I choose “Western (Sumatra, Jakarta, Java, West and Central Kalimantan)”.

The next step is to create a partition on the hard drive. In the “Partitioning method” option, select “Guided – Use entire disk”. In this option the disk will be formatted, the entire contents of the disk will be deleted, and will automatically create the partition.

You can select “Guided – Use entire disk and set up LVM” if you want to use Logical Volume Manager (LVM) so that later can be resized partisinya. Or “Guided – Use entire disk and set up encrypted LVM” if you want to use an encrypted LVM partition to increase data security. Or if you are an advanced user, can choose “Manual” in order to set the partition as you wish.

Select the disk you want to use for Debian 7 system.

In the choice of partition scheme, please select “All files in one partition”. If you want to separate folders / home on separate partitions, please select “Separate / home partition”. Or if you want to add system security, can separate folder / home, / usr, / var and / tmp on separate partitions, please select “Separate / home, / usr, / var and / tmp partitions”.
If you are a new user on a Linux system, I recommend selecting the first option only.

Review the partition scheme you selected earlier. If it is ok, select “Finish partitioning and write changes to disk”. If necessary change, select “Undo changes to partitions” and re-select the desired partitioning scheme.

Confirm partition scheme by select Yes and enter. Remember, this step can not be undone.

Next we do the package manager configuration to use the server repository closest to our Debian 7 machine. The closer, the faster the process of updating, upgrading or installing software. Choose “Yes” to start.

Due to the location of my Debian 7 machine in Surabaya, then I select mirror “Indonesia”.

Please select one of the mirror server you want to use.

If your Debian 7 machine requires using a proxy server to connect to the Internet, please enter the proxy server IP address, port, username & password. If not using a proxy server, leave it blank, and select “Continue”.

In the GRUB Loader installation option, choose “Yes”.

Debian 7 Linux installation process (Wheezy) is complete. Select “Continue” to restart this Debian 7 machine. Do not forget to remove the CD / unplug the USB installer, so that it can boot via hard drive.

The last step is to log into your newly installed Debian 7 machine, and input the command:

apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

This command to get the latest updates, both security and software.

NOTE: By default, ssh server is not installed. To be able to remotely use SSH, please install ssh server first with the command:

apt-get install ssh

Similarly Tutorial How to Install Linux Debian 7 (Wheezy), may be useful for you. If you have any questions, please post them in the comments field below.

How to Change Default Shell in Linux

If we are a non-root user we can not make direct changes to /etc/passwd file to change the default shell we have. To change the default shell we can use the command chsh. You can see the default shell and View the available shells on your computer before changing your default shell. The syntax of chsh command as follows:

chsh -s

The shell name contains the new shell name you will use and is an absolute path. for example if your default shell is bash (/ bin / bash) and you want to convert to csh (/ bin / csh), then the command you should use:

[lica @ canada ~] $ chsh -s /bin/csh
Changing shell for lica.
Password:
Shell changed.

When changing shell with chsh command you will be prompted for password. fill in with your user password and not the root password (if you have root access). to see the changes we can see the contents of /etc/passwd

[lica @ canada ~] $ grep lica / etc / passwd
lica: x: 500: 500: lica: / home/lica: /bin/csh

If you are running chsh from root, you can add username parameters as input to chsh to change a specific user shell in your system.

when you run chsh with no option, chsh will run in interactive mode, for example :

[lica @ canada ~] $ chsh
Changing shell for lica.
Password:
New shell [/ bin / csh]: / bin / bash
Shell changed.

Good luck!

View Default Shell

The default shell for each user is stored in the last /etc/passwd file. As an example :

[lica @ clarisa ~] $ grep lica /etc/passwd
lica: x: 500: 500: lica: /home/lica: /bin/bash

In the above example the default shell for lica user is /bin/bash. If you have root access you can of course directly edit this file and change the final column for the user who will change the default shell. The non-root user can only see the contents of the file /etc/password but can not write in the file.

In addition to viewing the contents of the file /etc/passwd you can see the default shell by looking at the contents of the $ SHELL variable.

[lica @ clarisa ~] $ echo $ SHELL
/bin/bash

Know Who’s Who Are Logging And What The User Is Doing

If you are a system administrator or sysadmin of a Linux computer, where multiple users can log in simultaneously, you may be wondering how we can find out who I am currently logged in and what your users are doing using w command.

[lica @ canada ~] # w
11:18:03 up 3 days, 23:31, 1 user, load average: 1.22, 1.20, 1.05
USER TTY FROM LOGIN @ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT
lica pts / 1 gw.kurungsiku 11:05 0.00s 0.01s 0.00s w
From the above info we can see there is 1 user with:

  • username lica
  • login from pseudo terminal pts / 1
  • from my gw.kurungs
  • logged in at 11:05
  • idle for 0.05s
  • JCPU 0.01s, is the amount of time used by all processes related to the tty used by the user, but excludes previous background jobs and only includes the currently running background jobs
  • The PCPU0.00s time used by the current process is written in the WHAT column
  • The last/last command is executed w

Knowing How Long a Computer Has Been On With Uptime

If you want to know how long a computer with a Linux operating system has turned on, you can read the file / proc / uptime, or for easy you can use uptime commands. as an example

$ uptime

11:05:23 up 3 days, 23:18, 1 user, load average: 1.01, 1.11, 1.01
The output of the above uptime command gives us the following info

Current time (11:05:23)
How long the system has been on (3 days, 23:18)
Number of current user login (1 user)
Average system load (Load Averages) for last 1, 5 and 15 minutes
Maybe useful!