How to Install Linux Mint for Beginners

In this article, I will explain the steps or tutorial how to install Linux Mint. Linux mint is an Operating System (OS) Linux distribution based on Debian and Ubuntu. Linux Mint itself has a different look with Ubuntu, where desktop display is more user friendly for Windows users who want to migrate to Linux Mint immediately. And the most desirable thing is the use of the software on Linux Mint itself is free.

Linux Mint has 4 desktop options namely Cinnamon, MATE, XFCE, KDE and Debian (the only one not based on Ubuntu) where each has its own advantages and disadvantages. In this tutorial, I use the Linux Mint desktop Cinnamon 18.3 “Sylvia” (latest version) because for better desktop look, neat and attractive compared to other types. For other versions, you do not worry because the steps are not much different.

The interface of Linux Mint is more modern and certainly will not be foreign to Windows operating system users who want to try. Because the look of this operating system is very similar to Windows. So Windows users do not worry about the use of this operating system because Windows users certainly will not find it difficult to adapt. Then, Linux Mint Cinnamon also has a very innovative feature on desktop productivity with its very fast development technology.

How to install Linux Mint Cinnamon can be on single-boot or dual-boot that can co-exist with other operating systems. It’s a good idea to backup your data to minimize the loss of data in case of error when choosing the memory partition option or during the installation process. Before installing Linux Mint Cinnamon 18.3 it’s good if you notice the things below:

  • The laptop has at least 1 GB of RAM with a minimum storage space of 11 GB
  • Provide a blank flash with a storage capacity of at least 2GB as a Bootable media.
  • If you install on a laptop, make sure your laptop battery is not depleted while the installation process is in progress. We recommend that while charging your laptop to minimize the things that are not desirable.
  • Download Rufus software to make bootable USB flash.
  • Download the Linux Mint Desktop Cinnamon 18.3 “Sylvia”
  • Make bootable USB flash using Rufus that has been downloaded before by entering the ISO file operating Linux Mint Desktop Cinnamon 18.3. Tutorial for bootable flash can be read here.

How to Setting BIOS for Booting from Flashdisk

In the installation process of this Linux Mint operating system, I use a flash as a bootable media. So, first set the BIOS on your computer.

  1. Insert the flash to your laptop. Restart your laptop and press on the F2 or Del keyboard (depending on the settings of each laptop to enter the BIOS).
  2. Next select the Boot tab.
  3. Then on the Boot priority order, select your flash (usually the detected brand flashdisk)> Then Save and Exit by pressing the keyboard F10 key.

How to Install Linux Mint

1. After setting up the BIOS, the installation process of the Linux Mint operating system begins. Wait for the loading to finish.

2. Select the language that will be used during the installation process, I choose English> Select Continue.

3. At this stage, you will be offered to install the software during the installation process or after completion. The process of installing the software requires a good internet connection. I recommend not installing the software if your internet connection is unstable. This is so that when the Linux Mint installation process does not have an error. Simply click Continue without menceklis.

4. In the installation type, select Something else> click Continue. This something else part is useful for you who want to create your own partition to minimize the operating system one more (if dual boot).

5. Next go to the partition. Click New partition table to create the desired partition.

6. Then click Continue.

7. This partition will be divided into two parts: firstly Swap Area used as backup memory, and second Root as data storage during installation process and place of storage after finished installation process. Then click the plus sign icon designated by the red arrow in the image below to add the partition.

8. Fill in the Size as you see fit. My swap size is only 1 GB, so to specify this swap size does not need to be too big. Then select the Primary option> select Beginning of this space> Select swap area in Use as> then click OK.

9. Your swap partition has been successfully created. Then create a new partition again for Root. click the plus icon as before.

10. Fill Size (I do not change the size specified by computer automatically)> Select Logical> Select Beginning of this space> Then choose Ext4 journaling file system> Select / on Mount point> Select OK.

11. The Root Partition has been successfully created. Next click Install Now.

12. Click Continue to continue the installation process.

Step 12 – continue

13. Select your regional time zone> Continue.

14. Select Language> Click Continue.

15. Furthermore the contents of the form are available. Fill in your name, computer name, username, and password> Click Continue.

16. Wait until the installation is complete.

17. After the installation process is complete, restart your computer by clicking Restart Now.

18. Wait until the process of restarting your computer is complete. If dual boot, select Linux Mint on dual boot option. After logging into the Linux Mint operating system, enter the password that you created earlier and press Enter.

19. The installation process of Linux Mint operating system has been successfully done.

So many tutorials how to install Linux Mint Desktop Cinnamon 18.3 “Sylvia” on laptop. You can choose the Linux Mint desktop type to suit your needs as well as your laptop’s specifications. Hopefully the installation process you did was successful and hopefully this article useful for you.

3 Ways to Delete a Directory on Linux via Terminal

As we know, Linux is one of the best operating system (OS) that has many devotees. The familiar Linux types like Debian, Ubuntu, Red Hat, Fedora, and others. For you Linux users are certainly no stranger to the use of its terminal. This Linux terminal is the same as the command prompt or cmd in Windows. Well, some of the common functions used through Linux terminals, such as the activities of installing the program, running the program, create, move, copy, edit, and delete folders and files, and much more.

There are two types of Linux operating systems, first server and second desktop. Unlike the desktop type that provides the GUI interface, the server type relies on the shell or command line, in other words you give commands through the terminal. For those of you new users of server type, you may be confused when operating it.

How to Delete a Directory in Linux

In this discussion, I will use a terminal to delete directories on Linux by applying Linux command line commands. Here are some command lines that you can use on the terminal to delete directories in Linux and how to apply them.

1. Removing Empty Directories

The rmdir command is used to remove an empty directory on Linux. This command can not be used for folders that contain or have folders / files in it. As for the way among others as follows.

1. Open your terminal. Go to terminal command to the directory to be deleted. Go to the parent directory of the directory you want to delete by using the command:

cd nama_folder

For example, as in the picture below, I want to delete folder1 located in the Documents / folders directory. The folder is empty, so I can use the rmdir command to delete it. Go to the directory with the command:

cd Documents / foldersaya

2. After that type the command as follows.

rmdir nama_folder

To delete folder1 I use the command:

rmdir folder1

3. Your directory was successfully deleted. This you can prove by listing the contents of your parent directory with the ls -al command. In the sample image, it appears that folder1 no longer exists in the folders directory.

2. Removing Empty / Owned Directories

The rm -r command can be used to remove empty directories or have contents, ie there are folders and / or files in them. Before successfully deleting the directory, this command will ask for a confirmation of deletion when it is run against a directory that does not have write-potable permissions.

As we know, directory permissions are divided into 3, ie read, write, and execute or commonly written with rwx. Where read means the user can only view files / folders, write means the user can write files / folders (including editing and deleting), and execute to execute files / folders (useful for entry into folders).

Here is an example of applying the rm -r command.

1. First, you open the terminal and use the cd command to go to the directory you want to delete.

cd nama_folder

As in the picture below, I will delete folder2. There is a file named file1.txt and a task folder in the folder2 directory. You should note that the task folder only has read (r) permissions, visible in the absence of the letter w in the row (dr-r-r-).

2. Type command:

rm -r nama_folder

Implementation on the picture you can see yanng appointed by the second arrow.

3. Next, the deletion you ordered will be processed. A confirmation will appear like in the image where you can type y to be absolutely sure to delete the directory.

4. Your directory was successfully deleted. This you can prove by listing the contents of your parent directory with the ls -al command. In the sample image, it appears that folder2 no longer exists in the folders directory.

3. Removing Directory / File Without Permission

This command is similar to the previous one, ie rm -r. It’s just the difference when the command is executed. The rm -rf command no longer asks your permission to actually delete the directory you want, but will remove it immediately when it is run.

The following is the implementation of the rm -rf command.

1. Open your terminal and use the cd command to go to the directory you want to delete.

cd nama_folder

As in the picture below, I will delete folder3. There is a training folder and a file named test.txt in the folder3 directory. Note that the test.txt file has only read (r) privileges, visible in the absence of the letter w in the row (r-r-r-). This is more or less the same as in the case of rm -r above, where in the directory you want to delete there are files / folders that are write-protected.

2. Apply the removal command with the following syntax:

rm -rf nama_folder

Implementation of the rm -rf command you can see in the picture, designated by mcfol a second arrow.

3. Your directory was successfully deleted. The rm -rf command appears not to ask for confirmation again to delete folder3 directory. This you can prove by listing the contents of your parent directory with the ls -al command. In the sample image, it appears that folder3 no longer exists in the folder foldersaya.

Cover

The above three commands you can use to delete an empty folder. As for the folder that contains, you can choose between command rm -r and rm -rf, depending on your taste. The rm -r command can also be used to check whether your directory contains protected files / folders.

That’s how to delete directories under Linux. If there is anything you want to respond to, please fill in the comments field below. thanks.

2 How to Create a New User on Linux for Beginners

User management is important in an operating system for example on the Linux operating system. Each user has at least a separate account when accessing Linux so that each user has their own user and home folder. This will also prevent damage and access to data or files by unauthorized parties. In other words, each user must have private data that is not shared publicly.

With the management of the user, users can set the permissions of each file / folder in the form of access rights for the owner (owner), group and public (general). In addition, users can also set permissions on other users such as which user has administrator privileges (root) or a normal user.

In short, Ubuntu Linux provides a multi user account that lets you create multiple users on an Ubuntu operating system. How do I create a new user on Ubuntu Linux? For further explanation let’s look at the explanation below.
How to Create a New User in Ubuntu Linux

Creating a new user on Ubuntu Linux is easy and simple. There are two commands you can use to create a new user in Ubuntu namely Adduser and Useradd.

What is the difference between the two?

useradd creates an unsolicited user to set / set password. Meanwhile, the adduser creates the user by setting / password first simultaneously.
useradd creates the user without making the home directory. Meanwhile, adduser create user and home directory.
useradd creates a user without including a full description of the user. Meanwhile, the adduser creates the user with a full description of the user.

In order to better understand the differences between the two commands, let’s look at how to create a new user in Ubuntu using both commands and see the difference.

A. Creating a New User With the Adduser Command

1. To create a new user, you must be logged in as root by including the word “sudo” at the beginning of the command you want to execute. Here we will create a new user with adduser with sudo adduser command <username>. For example: sudo adduser hannani123. Then press Enter. Then, you will be asked to enter a password for your new user.

2. After that, you will be prompted to fill in information for new users such as your full name, phone number and more (you can empty information you do not need).

3. When finished filling in the information, type the letter “Y” as a confirmation that the information you made is correct.

4. Well, now, you can login with your new user account by typing sudo login <user name> command. Example: sudo login hannani123.

B. Creating a New User With Useradd Commands

1. To create a new user, you must be logged in as root by including the word “sudo” at the beginning of the command you want to execute. Here we will create a new user with useradd with the command sudo useradd <username>. For example: sudo useradd nabilah. Then press Enter.

2. Because useradd does not ask you to set a password, you can still create a password on that user by typing sudo passwd command <username>. Example: sudo passwd nabilah.

3. Well, now, you can login with your new user account by typing sudo login <user name> command. Example: sudo login nabilah.

4. To exit the user, type the exit command.

C. View All List of Users in Ubuntu

To see all the user lists in your Ubuntu, you just type in the command cat / etc / passwd and press Enter.

Well, the result will look like in the picture below, you can see in the last two lines there are user hannani123 and nabilah we have made before.

So many discussions about how to create a new user on Ubuntu Linux with the command Adduser and Useradd. Well, hopefully the discussion described above is helpful and good luck. Thank you!

How to install debian 8

Debian is a free operating system (from freedom meaning freedom) to your computer. The operating system is a collection of basic programs and utilities that your computer needs to work.

Debian 8.0 was released April 25, 2015. The release includes many major changes, described in press releases and Release Notes.

To get and install Debian, see the installation information page
and Installation Guide. To upgrade from an older Debian release, see the instructions in Release Notes on its official website at http://debian.org

Steps to install debian 8:

1. Setting the BIOS of your computer like time and others including boot priority to boot over DVD / CD or you can make booting via flash or other media you can use the initial process after booting via debian DVD as shown below
you can select “install” by pressing enter

2. After press enter will appear option for the language you will use I suggest to use bahasa english because this language is more universal
you can select “english – english” by pressing enter

3.Then you will be asked to choose the location where you are located please select “other> asia> indonesia
then select “asia” hit enter
then select “indonesia” press enter
4. Next you will be prompted to specify locales please select “United States – en_US.UTF-8”
5.Selanjutnya you will be prompted to choose the type or type of keyboard you use please select “American English” if you use qwerty keyboard

8.If your network is not connected or not using DHCP network you can configure your LAN card first with ip
9. After that you can configure your ip first by selecting “Configure network manully” press enter
10.Isikan your IP address
11. Next will exit auto gateway from your ip then hit enter

12. Next you will be asked to enter ip dns you can input the same ip with ip gateway
13. Then you are asked to enter the hostname
14. Next you are asked to enter a domain name
15. Next you will be asked to enter a password for user “ROOT”

16.Masukan once again your root password and then press enter

17. Then you are prompted to enter the full name of the new user you want to create and then enter
18.Then you are asked to enter usernname for new user then enter
19.New User Password
20.Make another password for the new user
21. Then you will be asked to enter time zone or time zones in Indonesia please select Western for WIB

22.Now you are in the process of selecting the second partition
23. Press enter
24.Select “All files in one partition” and press enter
25. Then select “Finish partitioning and write changes to disk” and press enter

26. Then select “yes” to “write the changes to disks” press enter

27.Then “scan another CD or DVD ….” select enter no enter
28.Then will appear “use a network mirror” select no then enter

29. Appear “participate in the package usage survey?” like the picture below please select “yes” then press enter

30. next you are asked to choose what software you want to install, to select software please you press space to mark bingtang then press enter if you have finished select

31.Then appear as shown below is “install the GRUB …” please select “yes” press enter
32.Then you will be asked to select where master boot loader will be installed select “/ dev / sda” or your hard drive press enter

33. After the installation is complete it will appear as shown below and select “continue” press enter and finish

Thank you ^^

How to Install Debian 9 (Stretch) with Manual Partitioning

Debian operating system installation is generally the same, any version. And tutorials / installation guide Debian has been widely spread on the internet. You can easily get it in an instant through google search engine. Then what is so special this tutorial that I write this?

Hehehe … nothing special. Notes (not tutotial loh yah) I am just explaining how to manually install with partitions. Because most Debian installation tutorials are with auto partitioning. Well, on this note will be practiced how to install Debian 9 (Stretch) with automatic partitioning.

Okay, no need to be long. The example of this case:

You are required to install a server with the following conditions:
1. Create a 10GB partition and associate it to / (root partition)
2. Make sure the swap partition size is 2xRAM
3. Create a partition for / home with the maximum size
4. Also create a partition for / var with a size of 30% of the partition for / home

All right, let’s be executed. When creating this note, I use VirtualBox to install Debian 9. Because if using a real server I can not take a screenshot :-P.

Turn on VirtualBox, create and run the Debian VM so it looks like Figure 01 above. There are several options there, I will use the text mode installation, then I take the second option, Install. Press the up or down direction keys to change the selection, then press [Enter]

Search and select the language to use in the Installation process, choose Bahasa Indonesia to follow my notes.

Select [Yes] to continue with the selected language. The explanation on the picture is pretty clear, I think.

Again, choose Indonesia.

For this one, leave the default (English American), do not change, directly press [Enter]. Unless you’re sure the keyboard layout you’re using is not it.

Well, in this network configuration I chose not to set the network. My NAT is disabled, so will not be able to IP from DHCP server. Select the bottom, then press [Enter].

Set hostname, hostname is the computer name. It’s free, as you please. In this case I use debian-server as its hostname. Press [Enter] to continue.

Ah, actually already quite clear explanation on the picture. Starting on this Debian 9 (Stretch), super root user account may not be given a password, instead a user account will be created and authorized to root with the “sudo” command. But incidentally, I chose to enter a password here :-P. Press [Enter] to continue.

Enter the password again.

Type in your full name, or type samsul maarif if you want to use my name :-). Press [Enter] to continue.

The account name will usually automatically use the first name. Just press [Enter] to continue.

Type the password for the user’s account. This password is mandatory. This is used to log in to the system.

Select the time zone corresponding to where you live. Then press [Enter] to continue.

Well, here it is. The essence of this note. Because the installation will be done with manual partitioning. Select Manual, then press [Enter] to continue.

If on your hard drive there are many partitions, make sure the data on the hard disk partition is already DIBACKUP alias SHIPPED, delete all existing partitions. How to remove it? Navigate to the hard drive whose partition will be deleted, press [Enter], then select yes to delete it.
If you are not quite sure, please select the <back> button and uninstall.

After the partition is empty like the image 15, proceed to the next process. Select on EMPTY ROOM, then press [Enter] to continue.

Select Create new partition, then press [Enter] to continue.

Well again, because the requested 10 GB for /, then make first partition.

Select Primary, then press [Enter] to continue.

Select Start, then press [Enter] to continue.

If successful will appear as Figure 20. Make sure the hook point is /, the file system I currently use is the Ext4 journal file system. Select Done to compile the partition, then press [Enter] to continue.

Next, point to EMPTY ROOM, then press [Enter] to continue creating the partition again.

Select Create new partition, then press [Enter] to continue.

What is asked on the question is the 2xRAM swap partition, while the RAM I use on VirtualBox is 1 GB. So I created a new partition 2 GB size, press [Enter] to continue

Select Logical, press [Enter] to continue.

The explanation in the picture is clear enough, right? Select Start, press [Enter] to continue.

Well, since this partition will be used as swap, point to Use as :, press [Enter].

Drag down, and select swap space, press [Enter] again.

Drag again down, select Done compile the partition, press [Enter] again.

Just 2 partitions are created, then point again to ROOM EMPTY, press [Enter] to create a new partition.

Just like before, select Create new partition, press [Enter] again.

Because the requested is to create the / home and / var partitions. First create partition for / var for easier, enter 30% number, press [Enter] to continue.

This will create a new partition of 30% of the rest of the hard drive.

Select logical again, press [Enter] to continue.

Select Start, press [Enter] to continue again.

Point at the point of the hook where it appears / home, press [Enter], the latch point option will appear.

Select / var to change / home. Partitions for / home are made later. Press [Enter] to continue.

Once sure enough looks like the picture above, the Hook point section is directed to / var. Select Done to compile the partition, press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

Navigate back to ROOM, [Enter] again on the keyboard to continue.

Press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

Well, the size of this partition should not be changed, because whatever the rest will be used entirely as partition for / home. Except, if will make partition again other than for which already mentioned here. Directly press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue the next stage.

Select the Logical partition type, press [Enter] to continue again.

After looking like 41 above, this hook point leads to / home. Select Done compile the partition, [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

In this step, the results of the created partition are created. As in the picture, there is a file system, size, hook point, etc.

Note:
– Logical partition always starts with number # 5, because maximum primary partition is 4 partition.
– f there means that the partition will be formatted.

Up to this point, before <Yes> is selected, your hard drive remains intact. Have not done anything yet. So, if you cancel the installation process at this stage, your hard drive is still intact.

On the question Write the changes that occur on the hard disk ?, select <Yes>, press [Enter] to confirm the change. Wait a while, your hard drive is being formatted, created some partitions as requested.

When the display appears as in figure 44 above, select <No>.

As is known, Debian is divided into several DVDs, DVD 1 is an installer and contains some packages, DVD 2 & 3 contains only packages. Packages in this case may be referred to as repositories. The repository is an application pack storehouse. When installing an application on Debian through a management package, the application package is retrieved from the repository.

Selecting <Yes> will require you to enter DVDs 2 & 3, will certainly extend the installation process.

Select <No> too, press [Enter] to confirm.

Repositories, either online or via DVD can be set after the installation process.

As written on the picture, the survey results will be used to determine which packages should be included on the first Debian CD. Select <Yes>, if you intend to participate, select <No> if you do not participate. Press [Enter] to confirm.Because it will install Debian as a server, only some packages will be installed. Use the [Space] (space) key on the keyboard to enable and disable the package options to install.

Just select SSH Server and the only standard System tool on this practice. Press [Enter] to continue. Wait some time until the installation is complete, until the next display appears.

Well, pretty clear explanation on the picture, is not it? Select <Yes>, then press [Enter].

Select the device (hard disk) to install the boot loader. In this case the only hard disk is / dev / sda. If there are other hard disks, make sure to select the correct one, which is the hard disk associated with / earlier. Select / dev / sda in this case, then press [Enter].

Up to this point the installation has been completed. Select <Continue> to end the installation and the computer will be restarted. For the next will go into the newly installed system.

Make sure CD / DVD installation media is removed. So when the computer re-ignited not go back to the installation process.

Display GRUB Boot loader when logged in to the newly installed Debian system.

This is a login view, like an entrance to a newly created home. Enter a username and password to log in to the system.

NOTE! The password in Linux will not be visible, so just type the password, then press [Enter]

If the username and password you type are correct, you will login to the system. Marked with username @ namahost: ~ $, in this case my username is samsul and hostname is debian-server.

Oops, you forgot the password you typed during installation? Yes, please re-install your system. Make sure not forget again, itung-itung learn to understand the installation process. Or learn how to reset a password to log into a Linux system, especially Debian.

Drag down, and select swap space, press [Enter] again.

Drag again down, select Done compile the partition, press [Enter] again.

Just 2 partitions are created, then point again to ROOM EMPTY, press [Enter] to create a new partition.

Just like before, select Create new partition, press [Enter] again.

Because the requested is to create the / home and / var partitions. First create partition for / var for easier, enter 30% number, press [Enter] to continue.

This will create a new partition of 30% of the rest of the hard drive.

Select logical again, press [Enter] to continue.

Select Start, press [Enter] to continue again.

Point at the point of the hook where it appears / home, press [Enter], the latch point option will appear.

Select / var to change / home. Partitions for / home are made later. Press [Enter] to continue.

Once sure enough looks like the picture above, the Hook point section is directed to / var. Select Done to compile the partition, press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

Navigate back to ROOM, [Enter] again on the keyboard to continue.

Press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

Well, the size of this partition should not be changed, because whatever the rest will be used entirely as partition for / home. Except, if will make partition again other than for which already mentioned here. Directly press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue the next stage.

Select the Logical partition type, press [Enter] to continue again.

After looking like 41 above, this hook point leads to / home. Select Done compile the partition, [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

In this step, the results of the created partition are created. As in the picture, there is a file system, size, hook point, etc.

Note:
– Logical partition always starts with number # 5, because maximum primary partition is 4 partition.
– f there means that the partition will be formatted.

Up to this point, before <Yes> is selected, your hard drive remains intact. Have not done anything yet. So, if you cancel the installation process at this stage, your hard drive is still intact.

On the question Write the changes that occur on the hard disk ?, select <Yes>, press [Enter] to confirm the change. Wait a while, your hard drive is being formatted, created some partitions as requested.

When the display appears as in figure 44 above, select <No>.

As is known, Debian is divided into several DVDs, DVD 1 is an installer and contains some packages, DVD 2 & 3 contains only packages. Packages in this case may be referred to as repositories. The repository is an application pack storehouse. When installing an application on Debian through a management package, the application package is retrieved from the repository.

Selecting <Yes> will require you to enter DVDs 2 & 3, will certainly extend the installation process.

Select <No> too, press [Enter] to confirm.

Repositories, either online or via DVD can be set after the installation process.

As written on the picture, the survey results will be used to determine which packages should be included on the first Debian CD. Select <Yes>, if you intend to participate, select <No> if you do not participate. Press [Enter] to confirm.Because it will install Debian as a server, only some packages will be installed. Use the [Space] (space) key on the keyboard to enable and disable the package options to install.

Just select SSH Server and the only standard System tool on this practice. Press [Enter] to continue. Wait some time until the installation is complete, until the next display appears.

Well, pretty clear explanation on the picture, is not it? Select <Yes>, then press [Enter].

Select the device (hard disk) to install the boot loader. In this case the only hard disk is / dev / sda. If there are other hard disks, make sure to select the correct one, which is the hard disk associated with / earlier. Select / dev / sda in this case, then press [Enter].

Up to this point the installation has been completed. Select <Continue> to end the installation and the computer will be restarted. For the next will go into the newly installed system.

Make sure CD / DVD installation media is removed. So when the computer re-ignited not go back to the installation process.

Display GRUB Boot loader when logged in to the newly installed Debian system.

This is a login view, like an entrance to a newly created home. Enter a username and password to log in to the system.

NOTE! The password in Linux will not be visible, so just type the password, then press [Enter]

If the username and password you type are correct, you will login to the system. Marked with username @ namahost: ~ $, in this case my username is samsul and hostname is debian-server.

Oops, you forgot the password you typed during installation? Yes, please re-install your system. Make sure not forget again, itung-itung learn to understand the installation process. Or learn how to reset a password to log into a Linux system, especially Debian.

Drag down, and select swap space, press [Enter] again.

Drag again down, select Done compile the partition, press [Enter] again.

Just 2 partitions are created, then point again to ROOM EMPTY, press [Enter] to create a new partition.

Just like before, select Create new partition, press [Enter] again.

Because the requested is to create the / home and / var partitions. First create partition for / var for easier, enter 30% number, press [Enter] to continue.

This will create a new partition of 30% of the rest of the hard drive.

Select logical again, press [Enter] to continue.

Select Start, press [Enter] to continue again.

Point at the point of the hook where it appears / home, press [Enter], the latch point option will appear.

Select / var to change / home. Partitions for / home are made later. Press [Enter] to continue.

Once sure enough looks like the picture above, the Hook point section is directed to / var. Select Done to compile the partition, press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

Navigate back to ROOM, [Enter] again on the keyboard to continue.

Press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

Well, the size of this partition should not be changed, because whatever the rest will be used entirely as partition for / home. Except, if will make partition again other than for which already mentioned here. Directly press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue the next stage.

Select the Logical partition type, press [Enter] to continue again.

After looking like 41 above, this hook point leads to / home. Select Done compile the partition, [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

In this step, the results of the created partition are created. As in the picture, there is a file system, size, hook point, etc.

Note:
– Logical partition always starts with number # 5, because maximum primary partition is 4 partition.
– f there means that the partition will be formatted.

Up to this point, before <Yes> is selected, your hard drive remains intact. Have not done anything yet. So, if you cancel the installation process at this stage, your hard drive is still intact.

On the question Write the changes that occur on the hard disk ?, select <Yes>, press [Enter] to confirm the change. Wait a while, your hard drive is being formatted, created some partitions as requested.

When the display appears as in figure 44 above, select <No>.

As is known, Debian is divided into several DVDs, DVD 1 is an installer and contains some packages, DVD 2 & 3 contains only packages. Packages in this case may be referred to as repositories. The repository is an application pack storehouse. When installing an application on Debian through a management package, the application package is retrieved from the repository hargapromosupermarket.

Selecting <Yes> will require you to enter DVDs 2 & 3, will certainly extend the installation process.

Select <No> too, press [Enter] to confirm.

Repositories, either online or via DVD can be set after the installation process.

As written on the picture, the survey results will be used to determine which packages should be included on the first Debian CD. Select <Yes>, if you intend to participate, select <No> if you do not participate. Press [Enter] to confirm.Because it will install Debian as a server, only some packages will be installed. Use the [Space] (space) key on the keyboard to enable and disable the package options to install.

Just select SSH Server and the only standard System tool on this practice. Press [Enter] to continue. Wait some time until the installation is complete, until the next display appears.

Well, pretty clear explanation on the picture, is not it? Select <Yes>, then press [Enter].

Select the device (hard disk) to install the boot loader. In this case the only hard disk is / dev / sda. If there are other hard disks, make sure to select the correct one, which is the hard disk associated with / earlier. Select / dev / sda in this case, then press [Enter].

Up to this point the installation has been completed. Select <Continue> to end the installation and the computer will be restarted. For the next will go into the newly installed system.

Make sure CD / DVD installation media is removed. So when the computer re-ignited not go back to the installation process.

Display GRUB Boot loader when logged in to the newly installed Debian system.

This is a login view, like an entrance to a newly created home. Enter a username and password to log in to the system.

NOTE! The password in Linux will not be visible, so just type the password, then press [Enter]

If the username and password you type are correct, you will login to the system. Marked with username @ namahost: ~ $, in this case my username is samsul and hostname is debian-server.

Tutorial How to Install Linux Debian 7 (Wheezy)

Debian 7 (Wheezy) Linux more I use for server purposes, be it for Unbound DNS Server, Web Server, Proxy Server, R1Soft Backup Server, etc. In addition to free, stable & powerful; the installation process was easy to use ribet :). Here is a tutorial on how to install Linux Debian 7 (Wheezy). You can follow this tutorial for instalation on bare metal server (dedicated machine) or in virtual machine like VMWare, XenServer or VirtualBox.

PREPARATION

The first step is to download Debian 7 (Wheezy) installation. I personally prefer to use the standard iso version. Please download, adjust to your server / pc type, whether 64 bit or 32 bit. If your server / pc supports 64 bit, it is highly recommended to install 64 bit version.

Download Debian 7 Wheezy 32-bit
Download Debian 7 Wheezy 64-bit

For other iso version options, please see and download here.

When you have finished downloading, please burn to CD if you plan to install using CD. Or create a USB installer using Rufus or other USB installer installer app, if you plan to install via Flashdisk. If you plan to install on a virtual machine, you do not need to do anything, skip directly to the installation process.

INSTALLATION

First, set the BIOS to boot first via CD or USB, adjust to the type of installation media you choose. Start server / pc, and will appear as below:

 

Select “Install” to start installing Debian 7 (Wheezy) Linux.

 

Select the language you want to use for this Debian 7 installation. I chose English, if you want to choose Bahasa Indonesia.

 

Next select the state of the location we install Debian 7, this is to facilitate the time setting (hours, days and dates) as well as so that when setting the repository, we can choose the nearest location. Because we are in Indonesia, we will automatically choose Indonesia. Since Indonesia is not in the list, we select “Other”, then choose “Asia”, and select “Indonesia”.

 

For the locale setting, we select “United States”.

 

For keyboard keymap settings, I select “American Keyboard” to make the process faster: D You can select other keymap if you want.

 

Next we enter the process of networking settings. If your network uses DHCP Server, then you can skip directly to the hostname settings below. If you are not using DHCP Server, you are required to manually set the IP address, netmask, gateway & DNS server.

Select “Configure network manually” to start setting up networking on this Debian 7 machine.

 

In the IP Address field, enter the IP address you want to use. For example, here I am using IP address 192.168.0.102.

 

For the Netmask column, enter your network netmask. If you do not know or doubt, please check with your network admin. Here I use netmask 255.255.255.0.

Fill your network gateway.

 

Then enter the DNS Server you want to use. You can use local DNS servers, or external DNS servers such as Google Public DNS & OpenDNS.

 

Hostname is sort of a label, which is used to name the server / pc. Enter the hostname to your liking.

 

If this Debian 7 machine you use for online server, you can enter the domain name to be accessed. But if the server is on the intranet (local network), you can enter any name.

 

Next please enter a password for root (administrator). Use strong passwords & not easy to guess. You can use any combination of letters, numbers, uppercase or small letters, and special characters.

 

Re-enter the password for the root you previously entered.

 

Next is to create a normal user, so that when we work on this machine, not always logged in as root (administrator). Root is only used in certain moments only, such as install software, perform configuration, etc.. By working as a normal user, our Debian 7 machine will be safer from unwanted things. Enter the full name of the user who will use this Debian 7 machine.

 

Then enter the desired username for the new user.

 

And enter the password for this new user.

 

Next select the time zone according to your region. Because I am in Surabaya (Western Indonesia Time / Time), then I choose “Western (Sumatra, Jakarta, Java, West and Central Kalimantan)”.

The next step is to create a partition on the hard drive. In the “Partitioning method” option, select “Guided – Use entire disk”. In this option the disk will be formatted, the entire contents of the disk will be deleted, and will automatically create the partition.

You can select “Guided – Use entire disk and set up LVM” if you want to use Logical Volume Manager (LVM) so that later can be resized partisinya. Or “Guided – Use entire disk and set up encrypted LVM” if you want to use an encrypted LVM partition to increase data security. Or if you are an advanced user, can choose “Manual” in order to set the partition as you wish.

Select the disk you want to use for Debian 7 system.

In the choice of partition scheme, please select “All files in one partition”. If you want to separate folders / home on separate partitions, please select “Separate / home partition”. Or if you want to add system security, can separate folder / home, / usr, / var and / tmp on separate partitions, please select “Separate / home, / usr, / var and / tmp partitions”.
If you are a new user on a Linux system, I recommend selecting the first option only.

Review the partition scheme you selected earlier. If it is ok, select “Finish partitioning and write changes to disk”. If necessary change, select “Undo changes to partitions” and re-select the desired partitioning scheme.

Confirm partition scheme by select Yes and enter. Remember, this step can not be undone.

Next we do the package manager configuration to use the server repository closest to our Debian 7 machine. The closer, the faster the process of updating, upgrading or installing software. Choose “Yes” to start.

Due to the location of my Debian 7 machine in Surabaya, then I select mirror “Indonesia”.

Please select one of the mirror server you want to use.

If your Debian 7 machine requires using a proxy server to connect to the Internet, please enter the proxy server IP address, port, username & password. If not using a proxy server, leave it blank, and select “Continue”.

In the GRUB Loader installation option, choose “Yes”.

Debian 7 Linux installation process (Wheezy) is complete. Select “Continue” to restart this Debian 7 machine. Do not forget to remove the CD / unplug the USB installer, so that it can boot via hard drive.

The last step is to log into your newly installed Debian 7 machine, and input the command:

apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

This command to get the latest updates, both security and software.

NOTE: By default, ssh server is not installed. To be able to remotely use SSH, please install ssh server first with the command:

apt-get install ssh

Similarly Tutorial How to Install Linux Debian 7 (Wheezy), may be useful for you. If you have any questions, please post them in the comments field below.

How to Install Debian 9 (Stretch) with Manual Partitioning

The installation of the Debian operating system is generally the same, any version. And tutorials / installation guide Debian has been widely spread on the internet. You can easily get it in an instant through google search engine. Then what is so special this tutorial that I write this?

Hehehe … nothing special. Notes (not tutotial loh yah) I am just explaining how to manually install with partitions. Because most Debian installation tutorials are with auto partitioning. Well, on this note will be practiced how to install Debian 9 (Stretch) with automatic partitioning.

Okay, no need to be long. The example of this case:

You are required to install a server with the following conditions

  1. Create a 10GB partition and associate it to / (root partition)
  2. Make sure the swap partition size is 2xRAM
  3. Create a partition for / home with the maximum size
  4. Also create a partition for / var with a size of 30% of the partition for / home

All right, let’s be executed. When creating this note, I use VirtualBox to install Debian 9. Because if using a real server I can not take a screenshot :-P.

Figure 01: Initial view
Turn on VirtualBox, create and run the Debian VM so it looks like Figure 01 above. There are several options there, I will use the text mode installation, then I take the second option, Install. Press the up or down direction keys to change the selection, then press [Enter]

Figure 02: Select Language
Search and select the language to use in the Installation process, choose Bahasa Indonesia to follow my notes.

Figure 03: Are you sure you choose Indonesian?
Select [Yes] to continue with the selected language. The explanation on the picture is pretty clear, I think.

Figure 04: Select a location
Again, choose Indonesia.

Figure 05: Keyboard layout
For this one, leave the default (English American), do not change, directly press [Enter]. Unless you’re sure the keyboard layout you’re using is not it.

Figure 06: Setting up the network
Well, in this network configuration I chose not to set the network. My NAT is disabled, so will not be able to IP from DHCP server. Select the bottom, then press [Enter].

Figure 07: Setting up the network
Set hostname, hostname is the computer name. It’s free, as you please. In this case I use debian-server as its hostname. Press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 08: Password for root account
Ah, actually already quite clear explanation on the picture. Starting on this Debian 9 (Stretch), super root user account may not be given a password, instead a user account will be created and authorized to root with the “sudo” command. But incidentally, I chose to enter a password here :-P. Press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 09: Password again
Enter the password again.

Figure 10: User name
Type in your full name, or type samsul maarif if you want to use my name :-). Press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 11: Account name
The account name will usually automatically use the first name. Just press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 12: Password for user account
Type the password for the user’s account. This password is mandatory. This is used to log in to the system.

Figure 13: Time zone
Select the time zone corresponding to where you live. Then press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 14: Partition the hard disk
Well, here it is. The essence of this note. Because the installation will be done with manual partitioning. Select Manual, then press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 15: Partition the hard disk
In the picture 15, it looks hardisknya partition is still empty.

If on your hard drive there are many partitions, make sure the data on the hard disk partition is already DIBACKUP alias SHIPPED, delete all existing partitions. How to remove it? Navigate to the hard drive whose partition will be deleted, press [Enter], then select yes to delete it.
If you are not quite sure, please select the <back> button and uninstall.

After the partition is empty like the image 15, proceed to the next process. Select on EMPTY ROOM, then press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 16: Create a new partition
Select Create new partition, then press [Enter] to continue musikji.

Figure 17: partition size
Well again, because the requested 10 GB for /, then make first partition.

Figure 18: Partition type
Select Primary, then press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 19: partition location
Select Start, then press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 20: partition
If successful will appear as Figure 20. Make sure the hook point is /, the file system I currently use is the Ext4 journal file system. Select Done to compile the partition, then press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 21: create a new partition
Next, point to EMPTY ROOM, then press [Enter] to continue creating the partition again.

Figure 22: create a new partition
Select Create new partition, then press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 23: partition for swap
What is asked on the question is the 2xRAM swap partition, while the RAM I use on VirtualBox is 1 GB. So I created a new partition 2 GB size, press [Enter] to continue

Figure 24: New partition type
Select Logical, press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 25: the location of the partition
The explanation in the picture is clear enough, right? Select Start, press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 26: change the file system
Well, since this partition will be used as swap, point to Use as :, press [Enter].

Figure 27: file system options
Drag down, and select swap space, press [Enter] again.

Figure 28: swap done
Drag again down, select Done compile the partition, press [Enter] again.

Figure 29: blank space
Just 2 partitions are created, then point again to ROOM EMPTY, press [Enter] to create a new partition.

Figure 30: create a new partition
Just like before, select Create new partition, press [Enter] again.

Figure 31: partition size
Because the requested is to create the / home and / var partitions. First create partition for / var for easier, enter 30% number, press [Enter] to continue.

This will create a new partition of 30% of the rest of the hard drive.

Figure 32: partition type again
Select logical again, press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 33: new partition location again
Select Start, press [Enter] to continue again.

Figure 34: change the hook point
Point at the point of the hook where it appears / home, press [Enter], the latch point option will appear.

Figure 35: choice of hook point
Select / var to change / home. Partitions for / home are made later. Press [Enter] to continue.

Figure 36: Completed arranging the partition
Once sure enough looks like the picture above, the Hook point section is directed to / var. Select Done to compile the partition, press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

Figure 37: The remaining free space
Navigate back to ROOM, [Enter] again on the keyboard to continue.

Figure 38: Create a new partition
Press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

Figure 39: the size of the new partition
Well, the size of this partition should not be changed, because whatever the rest will be used entirely as partition for / home. Except, if will make partition again other than for which already mentioned here. Directly press [Enter] on the keyboard to continue the next stage.

Figure 40: Logical
Select the Logical partition type, press [Enter] to continue again.

Figure 41: partition / home
After looking like 41 above, this hook point leads to / home. Select Done compile the partition, [Enter] on the keyboard to continue.

Figure 42: Complete partitioning
In this step, the results of the created partition are created. As in the picture, there is a file system, size, hook point, etc.

Note:
– Logical partition always starts with number # 5, because maximum primary partition is 4 partition.
– f there means that the partition will be formatted.

Figure 43: Partition Confirmation
Up to this point, before <Yes> is selected, your hard drive remains intact. Have not done anything yet. So, if you cancel the installation process at this stage, your hard drive is still intact.

On the question Write the changes that occur on the hard disk ?, select <Yes>, press [Enter] to confirm the change. Wait a while, your hard drive is being formatted, created some partitions as requested.

Figure 44: Repository of the DVD
When the display appears as in figure 44 above, select <No>.

As is known, Debian is divided into several DVDs, DVD 1 is an installer and contains some packages, DVD 2 & 3 contains only packages. Packages in this case may be referred to as repositories. The repository is an application pack storehouse. When installing an application on Debian through a management package, the application package is retrieved from the repository.

Selecting <Yes> will require you to enter DVDs 2 & 3, will certainly extend the installation process.

Figure 45: use mirror?
Select <No> too, press [Enter] to confirm.

Repositories, either online or via DVD can be set after the installation process.

Figure 46: popularity contest
As written on the picture, the survey results will be used to determine which packages should be included on the first Debian CD. Select <Yes>, if you intend to participate, select <No> if you do not participate. Press [Enter] to confirm.

Figure 47: Choice of package
Because it will install Debian as a server, only some packages will be installed. Use the [Space] (space) button on the keyboard to enable and disable the package options to install.

Figure 48: SSH Server
Just select SSH Server and the only standard System tool on this practice. Press [Enter] to continue. Wait some time until the installation is complete, until the next display appears.

Figure 49: Install the boot loader
Well, pretty clear explanation on the picture, is not it? Select <Yes>, then press [Enter].

Figure 50: Select the hard disk
Select the device (hard disk) to install the boot loader. In this case the only hard disk is / dev / sda. If there are other hard disks, make sure to select the correct one, which is the hard disk associated with / earlier. Select / dev / sda in this case, then press [Enter].

Figure 51: The installation is complete
Up to this point the installation has been completed. Select <Continue> to end the installation and the computer will be restarted. For the next will go into the newly installed system.

Make sure CD / DVD installation media is removed. So when the computer re-ignited not go back to the installation process.

Figure 52: GRUB boot loader
Display GRUB Boot loader when logged in to the newly installed Debian system.

Figure 53: login view
This is a login view, like an entrance to a newly created home. Enter a username and password to log in to the system.

NOTE! The password in Linux will not be visible, so just type the password, then press [Enter]

Figure 54: successful login
If the username and password you type are correct, you will log in to the system. Marked with username @ namahost: ~ $, in this case my username is samsul and hostname is debian-server.

Oops, you forgot the password you typed during installation? Yes, please re-install your system. Make sure not forget again, itung-itung learn to understand the installation process. Or learn how to reset passwords to log into a Linux system, especially Debian

How To Install And Configure NTP Server In Debian

Okay, before I start install tutorial and ntp server configuration, how would I explain in advance the notion of ntp server? and also the usability of ntp server?

NTP stands for Network Time Protocol, a protocol for synchronizing a clock system on a computer against an accurate source, via an intranet or internet network. While the NTP Server is a server that is useful to synchronize the time to an accurate time source, and transmit the time information packet to the client computer requesting

This NTP Server is very useful if you manage a very tight network in time affairs. so the time available on each client will be exactly the same as our server

To make this NTP server is not so difficult. and this time I will give the tutorial. I am here using debian 7. if you have debian other than version 7, eg debian 8 or debian 6 do not worry, because basically the same first you have to install it first

# apt-get install ntp ntpdate

then the ntp server configuration is

#nano /etc/ntp.conf

Look for writing server0.debian.pool.ntp.org iburst
add fence (#) from server 0 to 3 and write server 127.127.1.0 under server 3

next search again posts restrict 192.168.123.0 mask 255.255.255.0 notrust and remove the hash mark (#) at the beginning of the post. change to restrict 192.168.32 (as per your ip) .0 mask 255.255.255.0 nomodify notrap

then save the configuration by pressing ctrl + x then y then enter

restart the ntp server with the # service ntp restart command
then check the ntp server is running well or not with the command #ntpq -p. if it is good on the jitter will be worth 0.001 or 0.000. if you have not researched the file configuration before there maybe something wrong.

Then you try by first test through the debian server directly with the command #ntpdate -u 127.0.0.1 will appear more or less like omdimas the following

then try to open the time settings on your windows client. go to date and time, select internet time, change settings … will appear new window

then check on “Syncronize with an …” enter ip server then Update now.

if it already says “The clock was successfully syncronized with …” it means you managed to sync the time to your ntp server

#note: if there is still any error writing, try repeating press Update now, it usually takes several times
good luck

How to Change Default Shell in Linux

If we are a non-root user we can not make direct changes to /etc/passwd file to change the default shell we have. To change the default shell we can use the command chsh. You can see the default shell and View the available shells on your computer before changing your default shell. The syntax of chsh command as follows:

chsh -s

The shell name contains the new shell name you will use and is an absolute path. for example if your default shell is bash (/ bin / bash) and you want to convert to csh (/ bin / csh), then the command you should use:

[lica @ canada ~] $ chsh -s /bin/csh
Changing shell for lica.
Password:
Shell changed.

When changing shell with chsh command you will be prompted for password. fill in with your user password and not the root password (if you have root access). to see the changes we can see the contents of /etc/passwd

[lica @ canada ~] $ grep lica / etc / passwd
lica: x: 500: 500: lica: / home/lica: /bin/csh

If you are running chsh from root, you can add username parameters as input to chsh to change a specific user shell in your system.

when you run chsh with no option, chsh will run in interactive mode, for example :

[lica @ canada ~] $ chsh
Changing shell for lica.
Password:
New shell [/ bin / csh]: / bin / bash
Shell changed.

Good luck!