How to Install Linux Mint for Beginners

In this article, I will explain the steps or tutorial how to install Linux Mint. Linux mint is an Operating System (OS) Linux distribution based on Debian and Ubuntu. Linux Mint itself has a different look with Ubuntu, where desktop display is more user friendly for Windows users who want to migrate to Linux Mint immediately. And the most desirable thing is the use of the software on Linux Mint itself is free.

Linux Mint has 4 desktop options namely Cinnamon, MATE, XFCE, KDE and Debian (the only one not based on Ubuntu) where each has its own advantages and disadvantages. In this tutorial, I use the Linux Mint desktop Cinnamon 18.3 “Sylvia” (latest version) because for better desktop look, neat and attractive compared to other types. For other versions, you do not worry because the steps are not much different.

The interface of Linux Mint is more modern and certainly will not be foreign to Windows operating system users who want to try. Because the look of this operating system is very similar to Windows. So Windows users do not worry about the use of this operating system because Windows users certainly will not find it difficult to adapt. Then, Linux Mint Cinnamon also has a very innovative feature on desktop productivity with its very fast development technology.

How to install Linux Mint Cinnamon can be on single-boot or dual-boot that can co-exist with other operating systems. It’s a good idea to backup your data to minimize the loss of data in case of error when choosing the memory partition option or during the installation process. Before installing Linux Mint Cinnamon 18.3 it’s good if you notice the things below:

  • The laptop has at least 1 GB of RAM with a minimum storage space of 11 GB
  • Provide a blank flash with a storage capacity of at least 2GB as a Bootable media.
  • If you install on a laptop, make sure your laptop battery is not depleted while the installation process is in progress. We recommend that while charging your laptop to minimize the things that are not desirable.
  • Download Rufus software to make bootable USB flash.
  • Download the Linux Mint Desktop Cinnamon 18.3 “Sylvia”
  • Make bootable USB flash using Rufus that has been downloaded before by entering the ISO file operating Linux Mint Desktop Cinnamon 18.3. Tutorial for bootable flash can be read here.

How to Setting BIOS for Booting from Flashdisk

In the installation process of this Linux Mint operating system, I use a flash as a bootable media. So, first set the BIOS on your computer.

  1. Insert the flash to your laptop. Restart your laptop and press on the F2 or Del keyboard (depending on the settings of each laptop to enter the BIOS).
  2. Next select the Boot tab.
  3. Then on the Boot priority order, select your flash (usually the detected brand flashdisk)> Then Save and Exit by pressing the keyboard F10 key.

How to Install Linux Mint

1. After setting up the BIOS, the installation process of the Linux Mint operating system begins. Wait for the loading to finish.

2. Select the language that will be used during the installation process, I choose English> Select Continue.

3. At this stage, you will be offered to install the software during the installation process or after completion. The process of installing the software requires a good internet connection. I recommend not installing the software if your internet connection is unstable. This is so that when the Linux Mint installation process does not have an error. Simply click Continue without menceklis.

4. In the installation type, select Something else> click Continue. This something else part is useful for you who want to create your own partition to minimize the operating system one more (if dual boot).

5. Next go to the partition. Click New partition table to create the desired partition.

6. Then click Continue.

7. This partition will be divided into two parts: firstly Swap Area used as backup memory, and second Root as data storage during installation process and place of storage after finished installation process. Then click the plus sign icon designated by the red arrow in the image below to add the partition.

8. Fill in the Size as you see fit. My swap size is only 1 GB, so to specify this swap size does not need to be too big. Then select the Primary option> select Beginning of this space> Select swap area in Use as> then click OK.

9. Your swap partition has been successfully created. Then create a new partition again for Root. click the plus icon as before.

10. Fill Size (I do not change the size specified by computer automatically)> Select Logical> Select Beginning of this space> Then choose Ext4 journaling file system> Select / on Mount point> Select OK.

11. The Root Partition has been successfully created. Next click Install Now.

12. Click Continue to continue the installation process.

Step 12 – continue

13. Select your regional time zone> Continue.

14. Select Language> Click Continue.

15. Furthermore the contents of the form are available. Fill in your name, computer name, username, and password> Click Continue.

16. Wait until the installation is complete.

17. After the installation process is complete, restart your computer by clicking Restart Now.

18. Wait until the process of restarting your computer is complete. If dual boot, select Linux Mint on dual boot option. After logging into the Linux Mint operating system, enter the password that you created earlier and press Enter.

19. The installation process of Linux Mint operating system has been successfully done.

So many tutorials how to install Linux Mint Desktop Cinnamon 18.3 “Sylvia” on laptop. You can choose the Linux Mint desktop type to suit your needs as well as your laptop’s specifications. Hopefully the installation process you did was successful and hopefully this article useful for you.

3 Ways to Delete a Directory on Linux via Terminal

As we know, Linux is one of the best operating system (OS) that has many devotees. The familiar Linux types like Debian, Ubuntu, Red Hat, Fedora, and others. For you Linux users are certainly no stranger to the use of its terminal. This Linux terminal is the same as the command prompt or cmd in Windows. Well, some of the common functions used through Linux terminals, such as the activities of installing the program, running the program, create, move, copy, edit, and delete folders and files, and much more.

There are two types of Linux operating systems, first server and second desktop. Unlike the desktop type that provides the GUI interface, the server type relies on the shell or command line, in other words you give commands through the terminal. For those of you new users of server type, you may be confused when operating it.

How to Delete a Directory in Linux

In this discussion, I will use a terminal to delete directories on Linux by applying Linux command line commands. Here are some command lines that you can use on the terminal to delete directories in Linux and how to apply them.

1. Removing Empty Directories

The rmdir command is used to remove an empty directory on Linux. This command can not be used for folders that contain or have folders / files in it. As for the way among others as follows.

1. Open your terminal. Go to terminal command to the directory to be deleted. Go to the parent directory of the directory you want to delete by using the command:

cd nama_folder

For example, as in the picture below, I want to delete folder1 located in the Documents / folders directory. The folder is empty, so I can use the rmdir command to delete it. Go to the directory with the command:

cd Documents / foldersaya

2. After that type the command as follows.

rmdir nama_folder

To delete folder1 I use the command:

rmdir folder1

3. Your directory was successfully deleted. This you can prove by listing the contents of your parent directory with the ls -al command. In the sample image, it appears that folder1 no longer exists in the folders directory.

2. Removing Empty / Owned Directories

The rm -r command can be used to remove empty directories or have contents, ie there are folders and / or files in them. Before successfully deleting the directory, this command will ask for a confirmation of deletion when it is run against a directory that does not have write-potable permissions.

As we know, directory permissions are divided into 3, ie read, write, and execute or commonly written with rwx. Where read means the user can only view files / folders, write means the user can write files / folders (including editing and deleting), and execute to execute files / folders (useful for entry into folders).

Here is an example of applying the rm -r command.

1. First, you open the terminal and use the cd command to go to the directory you want to delete.

cd nama_folder

As in the picture below, I will delete folder2. There is a file named file1.txt and a task folder in the folder2 directory. You should note that the task folder only has read (r) permissions, visible in the absence of the letter w in the row (dr-r-r-).

2. Type command:

rm -r nama_folder

Implementation on the picture you can see yanng appointed by the second arrow.

3. Next, the deletion you ordered will be processed. A confirmation will appear like in the image where you can type y to be absolutely sure to delete the directory.

4. Your directory was successfully deleted. This you can prove by listing the contents of your parent directory with the ls -al command. In the sample image, it appears that folder2 no longer exists in the folders directory.

3. Removing Directory / File Without Permission

This command is similar to the previous one, ie rm -r. It’s just the difference when the command is executed. The rm -rf command no longer asks your permission to actually delete the directory you want, but will remove it immediately when it is run.

The following is the implementation of the rm -rf command.

1. Open your terminal and use the cd command to go to the directory you want to delete.

cd nama_folder

As in the picture below, I will delete folder3. There is a training folder and a file named test.txt in the folder3 directory. Note that the test.txt file has only read (r) privileges, visible in the absence of the letter w in the row (r-r-r-). This is more or less the same as in the case of rm -r above, where in the directory you want to delete there are files / folders that are write-protected.

2. Apply the removal command with the following syntax:

rm -rf nama_folder

Implementation of the rm -rf command you can see in the picture, designated by mcfol a second arrow.

3. Your directory was successfully deleted. The rm -rf command appears not to ask for confirmation again to delete folder3 directory. This you can prove by listing the contents of your parent directory with the ls -al command. In the sample image, it appears that folder3 no longer exists in the folder foldersaya.

Cover

The above three commands you can use to delete an empty folder. As for the folder that contains, you can choose between command rm -r and rm -rf, depending on your taste. The rm -r command can also be used to check whether your directory contains protected files / folders.

That’s how to delete directories under Linux. If there is anything you want to respond to, please fill in the comments field below. thanks.

2 How to Create a New User on Linux for Beginners

User management is important in an operating system for example on the Linux operating system. Each user has at least a separate account when accessing Linux so that each user has their own user and home folder. This will also prevent damage and access to data or files by unauthorized parties. In other words, each user must have private data that is not shared publicly.

With the management of the user, users can set the permissions of each file / folder in the form of access rights for the owner (owner), group and public (general). In addition, users can also set permissions on other users such as which user has administrator privileges (root) or a normal user.

In short, Ubuntu Linux provides a multi user account that lets you create multiple users on an Ubuntu operating system. How do I create a new user on Ubuntu Linux? For further explanation let’s look at the explanation below.
How to Create a New User in Ubuntu Linux

Creating a new user on Ubuntu Linux is easy and simple. There are two commands you can use to create a new user in Ubuntu namely Adduser and Useradd.

What is the difference between the two?

useradd creates an unsolicited user to set / set password. Meanwhile, the adduser creates the user by setting / password first simultaneously.
useradd creates the user without making the home directory. Meanwhile, adduser create user and home directory.
useradd creates a user without including a full description of the user. Meanwhile, the adduser creates the user with a full description of the user.

In order to better understand the differences between the two commands, let’s look at how to create a new user in Ubuntu using both commands and see the difference.

A. Creating a New User With the Adduser Command

1. To create a new user, you must be logged in as root by including the word “sudo” at the beginning of the command you want to execute. Here we will create a new user with adduser with sudo adduser command <username>. For example: sudo adduser hannani123. Then press Enter. Then, you will be asked to enter a password for your new user.

2. After that, you will be prompted to fill in information for new users such as your full name, phone number and more (you can empty information you do not need).

3. When finished filling in the information, type the letter “Y” as a confirmation that the information you made is correct.

4. Well, now, you can login with your new user account by typing sudo login <user name> command. Example: sudo login hannani123.

B. Creating a New User With Useradd Commands

1. To create a new user, you must be logged in as root by including the word “sudo” at the beginning of the command you want to execute. Here we will create a new user with useradd with the command sudo useradd <username>. For example: sudo useradd nabilah. Then press Enter.

2. Because useradd does not ask you to set a password, you can still create a password on that user by typing sudo passwd command <username>. Example: sudo passwd nabilah.

3. Well, now, you can login with your new user account by typing sudo login <user name> command. Example: sudo login nabilah.

4. To exit the user, type the exit command.

C. View All List of Users in Ubuntu

To see all the user lists in your Ubuntu, you just type in the command cat / etc / passwd and press Enter.

Well, the result will look like in the picture below, you can see in the last two lines there are user hannani123 and nabilah we have made before.

So many discussions about how to create a new user on Ubuntu Linux with the command Adduser and Useradd. Well, hopefully the discussion described above is helpful and good luck. Thank you!